How does face culling work? Why doesn't it use the surface normal?
OpenGL face culling calculates the signed area of the filled primitive in window coordinate space. The signed area is positive when the window coordinates are in a counter-clockwise order and negative when clockwise. An app can use glFrontFace() to specify the ordering, counter-clockwise or clockwise, to be interpreted as a front-facing or back-facing primitive. An application can specify culling either front or back faces by calling glCullFace(). Finally, face culling must be enabled with a call to glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE); .
OpenGL uses your primitive's window space projection to determine face culling for two reasons. To create interesting lighting effects, it's often desirable to specify normals that aren't orthogonal to the surface being approximated. If these normals were used for face culling, it might cause some primitives to be culled erroneously. Also, a dot-product culling scheme could require a matrix inversion, which isn't always possible (i.e., in the case where the matrix is singular), whereas the signed area in DC space is always defined.
However, some OpenGL implementations support the GL_EXT_cull_vertex extension. If this extension is present, an application may specify a homogeneous eye position in object space. Vertices are flagged as culled, based on the dot product of the current normal with a vector from the vertex to the eye. If all vertices of a primitive are culled, the primitive isn't rendered. In many circumstances, using this extension results in faster rendering, because it culls faces at an earlier stage of the rendering pipeline.