# Thread: Rotate direction with regard to X axis is reversed

1. ## Rotate direction with regard to X axis is reversed

Below is the code that rotates a cube, excerpted and modified from Edward Angel's textbook. We can specify the axis about which to rotate by clicking different mouse key:
Code :
```//
// Display a color cube
//
// Colors are assigned to each vertex and then the rasterizer interpolates
//   those colors across the triangles.  We us an orthographic projection
//   as the default projetion.

#include "Angel.h"

typedef Angel::vec4  color4;
typedef Angel::vec4  point4;

const int NumVertices = 36; //(6 faces)(2 triangles/face)(3 vertices/triangle)

point4 points[NumVertices];
color4 colors[NumVertices];

// Vertices of a unit cube centered at origin, sides aligned with axes
point4 vertices[8] = {
point4( -0.5, -0.5,  0.5, 1.0 ),
point4( -0.5,  0.5,  0.5, 1.0 ),
point4(  0.5,  0.5,  0.5, 1.0 ),
point4(  0.5, -0.5,  0.5, 1.0 ),
point4( -0.5, -0.5, -0.5, 1.0 ),
point4( -0.5,  0.5, -0.5, 1.0 ),
point4(  0.5,  0.5, -0.5, 1.0 ),
point4(  0.5, -0.5, -0.5, 1.0 )
};

// RGBA olors
color4 vertex_colors[8] = {
color4( 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ),  // black
color4( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ),  // red
color4( 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0 ),  // yellow
color4( 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0 ),  // green
color4( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0 ),  // blue
color4( 1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0 ),  // magenta
color4( 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 ),  // white
color4( 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 )   // cyan
};

// Array of rotation angles (in degrees) for each coordinate axis
enum { Xaxis = 0, Yaxis = 1, Zaxis = 2, NumAxes = 3 };
int      Axis = Xaxis;
GLfloat  Theta[NumAxes] = { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 };

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// quad generates two triangles for each face and assigns colors
//    to the vertices
int Index = 0;
void
quad( int a, int b, int c, int d )
{
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[a]; points[Index] = vertices[a]; Index++;
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[b]; points[Index] = vertices[b]; Index++;
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[c]; points[Index] = vertices[c]; Index++;
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[a]; points[Index] = vertices[a]; Index++;
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[c]; points[Index] = vertices[c]; Index++;
colors[Index] = vertex_colors[d]; points[Index] = vertices[d]; Index++;
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// generate 12 triangles: 36 vertices and 36 colors
void
colorcube()
{
quad( 1, 0, 3, 2 );
quad( 2, 3, 7, 6 );
quad( 3, 0, 4, 7 );
quad( 6, 5, 1, 2 );
quad( 4, 5, 6, 7 );
quad( 5, 4, 0, 1 );
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// OpenGL initialization
void
init()
{
colorcube();

// Create a vertex array object
GLuint vao;
glGenVertexArrays( 1, &vao );
glBindVertexArray( vao );

// Create and initialize a buffer object
GLuint buffer;
glGenBuffers( 1, &buffer );
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffer );
glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(points) + sizeof(colors),
NULL, GL_STATIC_DRAW );
glBufferSubData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0, sizeof(points), points );
glBufferSubData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(points), sizeof(colors), colors );

glUseProgram( program );

// set up vertex arrays
GLuint vPosition = glGetAttribLocation( program, "vPosition" );
glEnableVertexAttribArray( vPosition );
glVertexAttribPointer( vPosition, 4, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0,
BUFFER_OFFSET(0) );

GLuint vColor = glGetAttribLocation( program, "vColor" );
glEnableVertexAttribArray( vColor );
glVertexAttribPointer( vColor, 4, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0,
BUFFER_OFFSET(sizeof(points)) );

glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST );
glClearColor( 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 );
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

void
display( void )
{
glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT );

mat4  transform = ( RotateX( Theta[Xaxis] ) *
RotateY( Theta[Yaxis] ) *
RotateZ( Theta[Zaxis] ) );

point4  transformed_points[NumVertices];

for ( int i = 0; i < NumVertices; ++i ) {
transformed_points[i] = transform * points[i];
}

glBufferSubData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0, sizeof(transformed_points),
transformed_points );

glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, NumVertices );
glutSwapBuffers();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

void
keyboard( unsigned char key, int x, int y )
{
switch( key ) {
case 033: // Escape Key
case 'q': case 'Q':
exit( EXIT_SUCCESS );
break;
}
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

void
mouse( int button, int state, int x, int y )
{
if ( state == GLUT_DOWN ) {
switch( button ) {
case GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON:    Axis = Xaxis;  break;
case GLUT_MIDDLE_BUTTON:  Axis = Yaxis;  break;
case GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON:   Axis = Zaxis;  break;
}
}
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

void
idle( void )
{
Theta[Axis] += 0.5;

if ( Theta[Axis] > 360.0 ) {
Theta[Axis] -= 360.0;
}

glutPostRedisplay();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------

int
main( int argc, char **argv )
{
glutInit( &argc, argv );
glutInitDisplayMode( GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_DEPTH );
glutInitWindowSize( 512, 512 );
glutInitContextProfile( GLUT_CORE_PROFILE );
glutCreateWindow( "Color Cube" );

glewInit();

init();

glutDisplayFunc( display );
glutKeyboardFunc( keyboard );
glutMouseFunc( mouse );
glutIdleFunc( idle );

glutMainLoop();
return 0;
}```

Code :
```#version 440

in  vec4 vPosition;
in  vec4 vColor;
out vec4 color;

void main()
{
gl_Position = vPosition;
color = vColor;
}```

Code :
```#version 440

in  vec4 color;
out vec4 fColor;

void main()
{
fColor = color;
}```

The problem is: according to my understanding, the positive direction is decided by the so-called "right-hand rule", but the rotate direction with regard to X axis is reversed. Why? Note that if I specify eye and clip frame using LookAt and Ortho function, the cube rotates in the direction as expected. Thanks for any help.

2. To moderator: I'd like to move this thread to "OpenGL coding: beginners" board. Please help me delete it. Thanks.

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