# Thread: Passing Normals to Shader

1. ## Passing Normals to Shader

I'm trying to draw a cube. I have a data structure that keeps all of the relevant vertex data on the cube (position, texture mapping, normals, color) that looks like this:

Code :
```typedef struct {
GLKVector3 positionCoordinates;
GLKVector2 textureCoordinates;
GLKVector3 normalCoordinates;
GLKVector4 colorCoordinates;
} VertexData;```

I define a unit cube centered at the origin with this data:

Code :
```VertexData modelViewVertices[] = {
//{ {position x,   position y, position z}, {texture}, {normalX, normalY, normalZ}, { red, blue, green, alpha} }
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f}},   // rightward facing (+X)
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, { 1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },

{ { 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },   // upward facing (+Y)
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },

{ {-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },   // leftward facing (-X)
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, {-1.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },

{ {-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },   // downward facing (-Y)
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f, -1.0f,  0.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },

{ { 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },   // forward facing (+Z)
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f,  1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },

{ { 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },   // rear facing (-Z)
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ { 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {0.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 0.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
{ {-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f}, {1.0f, 1.0f}, { 0.0f,  0.0f, -1.0f}, {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f} },
};```

Then, I go to draw the cube with this code:

Code :
```- (void)drawCube
{
glGenVertexArraysOES(1, &_vertexArray);
glBindVertexArrayOES(_vertexArray);

glGenBuffers(1, &_vertexBuffer);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, _vertexBuffer);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(modelViewVertices), modelViewVertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

glEnableVertexAttribArray(GLKVertexAttribPosition);
glVertexAttribPointer(GLKVertexAttribPosition, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(VertexData), (GLubyte *)0 + offsetof(VertexData, positionCoordinates));
glEnableVertexAttribArray(GLKVertexAttribNormal);
//    glVertexAttribPointer(GLKVertexAttribNormal, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(VertexData), (GLubyte *)0 + offsetof(VertexData, normalCoordinates));
glVertexAttribPointer(GLKVertexAttribNormal, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(VertexData), (const GLvoid*)(5*sizeof(GLfloat)));

glBindVertexArrayOES(0);
}```

The cube draws, but the normals seem to not be working. My guess is that my glVertexAttribPointer command is wrong, but I don't know how to fix it. Can anyone help me to get this to draw correctly. Thanks!

If it helps, here is the vertex shader code:

Code :
```attribute vec4 position;
attribute vec3 normal;

varying lowp vec4 colorVarying;

uniform mat4 modelViewProjectionMatrix;
uniform mat3 normalMatrix;

void main()
{
vec3 eyeNormal = normalize(normalMatrix * normal);
vec3 lightPosition = vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
vec4 diffuseColor = vec4(0.4, 0.4, 1.0, 1.0);

float nDotVP = max(0.0, dot(eyeNormal, normalize(lightPosition)));

colorVarying = diffuseColor; //* nDotVP;

gl_Position = modelViewProjectionMatrix * position;
}```

2. The cube draws, but the normals seem to not be working.
What do you mean by that? Are you checking for OpenGL errors (glGetError)? FWIW on a quick reading I did not see anything obviously wrong in the code you posted, but without a better description of the problem you are running into it's difficult to know where to look.

3. The cube displays on the screen, but it is all one single color, with no shading so you cannot see any depth. I can rotate it, etc., but without any shading it looks like a flat image.

Here's a screen shot:

4. Did you take that screenshot with the multiplication with nDotVP enabled in: colorVarying = diffuseColor; //* nDotVP; ? What happens when you just map the value nDotVP to the surface, i.e. colorVarying = vec4(nDotVP, nDotVP, nDotVP, 1); ?

5. Aaaagh! In all my obsession over the code in drawCube and my data structure, I overlooked the obvious fact that somewhere along the way I had commented out half that line of code. Now it renders in it's 3d glory. Thank you!

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