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The OpenGL Pipeline Newsletter - Volume 002

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The New Object Model

The Object Model TSG has been working diligently on the new object model. Object management in OpenGL is changing considerably. There will soon be a consistent way to create, edit, share and use objects.

The existing object model evolved over time, and did not have a consistent design. It started with display lists in OpenGL 1.0, and then added texture objects in OpenGL 1.1. Unfortunately texture objects were added in a less than optimal way. The combination of glBindTexture and glActiveTexture makes it hard to follow and debug code, for example. Texture objects can be incomplete, and worse, their format and size can be redefined with a call to glTexImage1D/2D/3D. After texture objects, new object types were added with sometimes inconsistent semantics. Furthermore, the existing object model is optimized for object creation, not for runtime performance. Most applications create objects once, but use them often. It makes more sense to ensure that using an object for rendering is lightweight. This is not the case right now.

The goals we are shooting for with the new object model are to:

  • achieve maximum runtime performance
  • eliminate incomplete objects
  • allow for sharing across contexts on a per-object basis
  • (partially) eliminate existing bind semantics

I'll explain each of these goals in the following paragraphs.

Maximum runtime performance is influenced by many factors, including the application's ability to use the underlying hardware as efficiently as possible. In the context of the new object model it means that maximum runtime performance is achieved only when overhead in the OpenGL driver is minimized. The new object model reduces driver overhead in several ways:

  • The amount of validation the OpenGL implementation needs to perform at draw time will be reduced. In OpenGL today, quite a lot of validation can and will happen at draw time, slowing rendering down.
  • Fewer state changes will be needed in the new object model, again improving runtime performance. For example, the number of bind operations, or copies of uniform values, will be reduced.
  • The new object model will reduce time spent in the OpenGL driver looking up object handles.

The fact that incomplete objects can exist adds flexibility to OpenGL, but without a clear benefit. They make it harder for the OpenGL implementation to intelligently allocate memory for objects, can result in more validation at rendering time, and can leave developers confused when rendering does not produce expected results. For example, a texture object is built up one mipmap level at a time. The OpenGL implementation has no idea in advance what the total memory requirements will be when an application hands it the first mipmap level. And if the application fails to provide a complete set of mipmap levels when mipmapping is enabled, that incomplete texture will not be used at all while rendering, a pitfall that can be difficult to debug.

Sharing of objects across contexts is an "all or nothing" switch today. Dangerous race conditions can occur when one context is using an object while another context is changing the object's size, for example. Not to mention what happens when deleting an object in one context while it is still in use in another context. This case actually leads to different behavior on different implementations due to ambiguities in the existing spec language.

The existing object model's "bind to edit" and "bind to use" semantics can have complex side effects and in general are confusing. There is no good reason to bind an object into the current rendering state if it just needs to be edited. Binding should only occur when the object is required for rendering.

The new object model is designed to overcome the flaws of the old one. Here are some of the highlights:

  • Object creation is atomic. All attributes needed to create an object are passed at creation time. Once created, the OpenGL implementation returns a handle to the new object.
  • An object handle is passed as a parameter to an OpenGL command in order to operate on the object. Gone is the bind semantic just to edit an object. Binding is only required when using an object for rendering.
  • An attribute can be set at object creation time to indicate if the object is eligible to be shared across contexts. Creation will fail if that type of object cannot be shared. Container objects, such as FBOs, cannot be shared across contexts in order to eliminate associated race-conditions. Container objects are light-weight, so duplicating one in another context is not a great burden.
  • All attributes passed at object creation time are immutable. This means that those properties of an object cannot be subsequently changed. Instead, a new object would be created by the application with a different set of attributes. For example, an image object needs to have its size and dimensionality set at creation time. Once created, it is no longer possible to change the size of an image object. The data stored in the image object is, however, mutable. Compare this to the old object model where both the size and data of a texture object are mutable. A call to glTexImage will both resize the texture object and replace the texel data in the object. Separating the object's shape and size from its data in this way has some nice side effects. It removes guesswork by the OpenGL implementation about what the object will look like, so it can make intelligent choices up front about memory allocation. It makes for more efficient sharing across contexts, since it removes dangerous race-conditions with respect to the shape and size.
  • It is more efficient for the OpenGL implementation to validate an object at render time, which in turn means higher rendering performance.
  • The new object model is easier for OpenGL application developers to use.
  • There will be new data types in the form of a per-object class typedef, which will enforce strong type-checking at compile time. This should be a nice aid, and if a compiler warning or error occurs, an early indicator of coding issues.
  • An object handle will be the size of the pointer type on the system the OpenGL implementation is running. This allows, but does not mandate, the OpenGL implementation to store a pointer to an internal data structure in the handle. This in turn means that the OpenGL implementation can very quickly resolve a handle being passed, resulting in higher performance. Of course, this can also lead to possible crashes of the application. A debug layer can help find these kind of bugs during development of a title.
  • The new object model is intended to be easier for OpenGL application developers to use.

Stay tuned to for more information! We have most object types worked out now, and are in the process of writing all this up in spec form. Once all object types have been worked out, we'll run it by you, our developer community.

Barthold Lichtenbelt, NVIDIA
Object Model TSG Chair

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