Assuming an axis-aligned cube and letting C1 and C2 be opposing corners, S the center of the sphere, and R the radius of the sphere, and that both objects are solid:
inline float squared(float v)
{
return v * v;
}
bool doesCubeIntersectSphere(vec3 C1, vec3 C2, vec3 S, float R)
{
float dist_squared = R * R;
/* assume C1 and C2 are element-wise sorted, if not, do that now */
if (S.X < C1.X) dist_squared -= squared(S.X - C1.X);
else if (S.X > C2.X) dist_squared -= squared(S.X - C2.X);
if (S.Y < C1.Y) dist_squared -= squared(S.Y - C1.Y);
else if (S.Y > C2.Y) dist_squared -= squared(S.Y - C2.Y);
if (S.Z < C1.Z) dist_squared -= squared(S.Z - C1.Z);
else if (S.Z > C2.Z) dist_squared -= squared(S.Z - C2.Z);
return dist_squared > 0;
}